Chaos is a type of natural phenomenon that occurs randomly, in an unpredictable and nonlinear way. Most scientific theories deal with predictable natural phenomena like electricity, planetary movements, chemical reactions, or gravity.
In the case of chaos theory, it deals with random and nonlinear processes that are very difficult to control or predict in conventional ways (like weather, stock market, neural states, etc.). Such phenomena are generally explained by chaos theory and fractal mathematics, which encapsulate the endless intricacies of nature. Our Universe is filled with such fractal processes, along with intricate, chaotic, and complex behaviours. Understanding the chaotic nature of our Universe can help us to predict and adapt to unavoidable scenarios.
Chaos Theory and Physical World
In mathematics and physics, chaos theory is the study of unpredictable or random behaviour on systems controlled by deterministic laws. It is a way of quantitative and qualitative inspection to investigate the nature of dynamic phenomena that cannot be predicted and described by direct and single data connections. This theory predicts and explains continuous data relationships. Deterministic chaos puts forward a paradox as it connects two conceptions that are commonly considered incompatible.
The first conception is that of unpredictability or randomness, as in the path of a molecule in a gaseous substance or in the probability of a specific coloured ball from a group of coloured balls in a box. In normal examinations, randomness is believed to be more apparent than actual existence, emerging from ignorance of the various causes. It was commonly thought that the Universe is not at all predictable because of its complexity. The second conception is that of deterministic movement, as that of a planter or a star, which has been considered true since the era of Issac Newton. It is considered a valid example of science in successfully predicting that which is fundamentally complex.
We know that quantum mechanics successfully deal with randomness. However, in the case of weather, it is fundamentally rooted in Newtonian mechanics. Here, chaos theory shows the restrictions of Newtonian physics to predict deterministic phenomena. In most cases, Newton’s mechanics do not have enough variables to incorporate the subtlety of unpredictable processes.
Minute variations in starting conditions, such as those caused by errors in calculations or due to rounding mistakes in numerical measurements, can result in widely different results for such dynamical processes or phenomena, generating a long-term prediction of their characteristics impossible. This can occur even though these phenomena are deterministic, pointing out that their future characteristics take a unique change and are completely calculated by their starting parameters, with no random components involved. That is, deterministic behaviours of these phenomena do not make them predictable. This is called deterministic chaos. The butterfly effect is one of the important outcomes of this scenario. The butterfly effect is the delicate dependence on starting conditions in which a minute change in one condition of a deterministic nonlinear phenomenon can generate huge variations in a future state.
Chaos Theory in Computer Science
In the theoretical computer field, chaos computing is the concept of employing chaotic systems for digital calculations. Chaotic systems can be constructed to create all forms of logic gates and additionally enable them to be morphed into each other. The amalgamation of chaos theory and information theory is one of the important foundations of modern digital computing technology. Modern digital computers do computations based upon digital logic functions applied at the basic level as logic gates. There are seven fundamental logic functions applied as logic gates: OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND, XNOR and XOR.
Chaotic morphing logic gates are made of common nonlinear circuits that display chaotic dynamics, creating different patterns. A control function is used to choose patterns that relate to various logic gates. The susceptibility to initial parameters is applied to switch between various combinations extremely fast.